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thorium power reactor


Power (electric) 304 MWe. The advanced heavy-water reactor (AHWR) or AHWR-300 is the latest Indian design for a next-generation nuclear reactor that burns thorium in its fuel core. It is slated to form the third stage in India's three-stage fuel-cycle plan. [1] This phase of the fuel cycle plan is supposed to be built starting with a 300MWe ...

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These reactors, known as Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTRs), present outstanding capabilities to help build a clean energy future. Here's a short list of their benefits: LFTRs are highly efficient - hundreds of times more so than Pressurized Water Reactors. [ 2] LFTRs are extremely safe.

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The primary benefit of Thorium Power's system is that it can be used in existing nuclear plants with slight modification, such as Russian VVER-1000 reactors. Seth Grae, president and chief executive of Thorium Power, and his team are actively working with the Russians to develop a commercial product by the end of this decade.

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Thorium Reactor Thorium reactors are based on the thorium fuel cycle and use thorium 232 as a fertile material. During the fuel burning, thorium 232 transforms into a fissile uranium 233.

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The fertile thorium-232 has to be converted into uranium-233 first for use in a nuclear reactor. Considering the country's vast thorium resources, the long-term nuclear energy policy of India has been focused on utilization of thorium early on. A three-stage nuclear power program was drafted already in the 1950's.

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Their 250-MWe liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) design targets the objective of providing low cost electricity and effective fuel management. The core is divided into two regions: a driver region and a blanket region. The 233 U fuel is dissolved within the Flibe salt and circulated in the driver region.

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In this section, radiotoxicity for PWR thorium fuel is compared with conventional PWR UO 2 fuel, and ORIGEN2 code is used to calculate radiotoxicity (Croff, 1980).The following core and libraries were selected, with a rated power density of 39.2. MW/T. Fuel was burnt up to 45 GWd/t, and then radiotoxicity was calculated from 1 year to 1 million years.

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Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) pioneered thorium-based MSRs in the 1950s for nuclear aircraft propulsion as part of the Manhattan Project. A 7.4 MW th experimental reactor operated at the laboratory over a period of four years —although only a portion of its fuel was derived from uranium-233 bred from thorium in other reactors.

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It will proceed to a continuous process of recycling salt, uranium and thorium, with online separation of fission products and minor actinides. The reactor will work up from about 20% thorium fission to about 80%. As this type of reactor does not require water for cooling, it will be able to operate in desert regions.

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Norway holds a resource of 170,000 tonnes of thorium, which amounts to 15% of the world's total of 1.2 million tonnes. There is far more thorium than that within the earth's crust all told ...

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But in a molten salt reactor one can also use thorium as a fuel and it is estimated that there is a factor 3 more thorium on earth that uranium. Thorium is easily accessible and at this moment is mostly a by-product of rare-earth mining. There is also thorium dissolved in ocean water. Thorium and uranium are a truly sustainable source of energy.

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Thorium Power Canada, in partnership with DBI, has developed thorium reactor designs, including a planned 10 megawatt reactor in Chile. Thorium Power Canada estimates the reactor will provide...

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Investors. Thorium Power Canada owns the Intellectual Property and has the completed engineering to build and operate a scalable thorium nuclear reactor. Thorium Power Canada, with its affiliate, DBI Chile, will build a 10 MW demonstration reactor in Chile to power a 2000 litre a day desalination plant. All land and regulatory approvals are ...

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Thorium, when irradiated for use in reactors, makes uranium-232, which emits gamma rays. This irradiation process may be altered slightly by removing protactinium-233. The decay of the protactinium-233 would then create uranium-233 in lieu of uranium-232 for use in nuclear weapons—making thorium into a dual purpose fuel. [36] [37]

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There are several ways thorium could be applied to energy production. One way under investigation now is to use solid thorium/uranium-232 fuel in a conventional water-cooled reactor, similar to modern uranium-based power plants. In fact, more than 20 reactors world-wide have been operated with fuel made of thorium and uranium-233.

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According to the World Nuclear Association, there are seven types of reactors that can be designed to use thorium as a nuclear fuel. Six of these have all entered into operational service at some point (usually with uranium fuel). The most promising are, for example: Heavy water reactors (PHWRs).

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As for uranium-based reactors, the basic classification of thorium nuclear reactors is based upon the average energy of the neutrons, which cause the bulk of the fissions in the reactor core.From this point of view, nuclear reactors are divided into two categories:. Thermal Reactors. Almost all of the current reactors which have been built to date use thermal neutrons to sustain the chain ...

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Demonstration Reactor; Generation IV Nuclear Reactors. Nuclear Reactor Operation Basics; Brief History of Nuclear Power; Key Advantages of DBI/TPC Thorium Reactors; Contact Us ...

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A unique thorium-fuelled light water breeder reactor operated from 1977 to 1982 at Shippingport in the USA 3 - it used uranium-233 as the fissile driver in special fuel assemblies that had movable 'seed' regions which allowed the level of neutron moderation to be gradually increased as the fuel aged e.

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High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR) are Generation IV reactors that use thorium-based fuels in the form of pebbles coated with pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide layers, which retain...

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Thorium-Based Nuclear Power. Thorium salt reactor in a thorium-based nuclear power generation mainly providing the energy of nuclear fission of the uranium-233 isotope produced from the fertile element thorium. A thorium fuel cycle has some potential benefits over a uranium fuel cycle such as a much greater abundance of thorium on the Earth ...

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A liquid-fluoride reactor, the Aircraft Reactor Experiment, was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954 as part of the ANP Program. The major goal of the MSRP was to achieve a thorium reactor that could produce power at low cost while simultaneously conserving and extending the nation's fuel resources.

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"On account of the physical characteristics of Thorium, it is not possible to build a nuclear reactor using Thorium alone. It has to be converted to Uranium-233 in a reactor before it can be used as fuel," the officer said. Thorium is available in the monazite sands on the east and west coasts of India and in some places in Bihar.

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A thorium reactor is a form of nuclear energy, proposed for use as a molten salt reactor. It is fueled by the uranium-233 isotope that is taken from the element thorium. Thorium is weakly radioactive, has a high melting point, and is available with more abundance than uranium as an element.

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Thorium cannot in itself power a reactor; unlike natural uranium, it does not contain enough fissile material to initiate a nuclear chain reaction. As a result it must first be bombarded with neutrons to produce the highly radioactive isotope uranium-233 - 'so these are really U-233 reactors,' says Karamoskos. ...

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The capital costs of thorium reactors would be lower than conventional nuclear reactors; a 1 gigawatt (GW) thorium power plant would cost at most an estimated $780 million in comparison to capital costs currently of $1.1 billion per GW for a uranium-fueled reactor.

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